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Title: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Residues analysis of vegetable samples employing newly modified Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction (DLLME)
Authors: Premla Devi Chander 
Mee Kin Chai 
Ling Shing Wong 
Issue Date: 2015
Conference: The 3rd National Graduate Conference (NatGrad2015), Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Putrajaya Campus, 8-9 April 2015 
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) represents as poorly degradable pollutants that exist in soils, sediments, surface water and atmosphere. A simple, rapid and sensitive extraction method termed modified Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction (DLLME) was developed to determine 12 PAHs in vegetable samples such as radish, cabbage and cucumber prior to Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID). The extraction method is based on replacing chlorinated organic extraction solvent in the conventional DLLME with low toxic solvents such as 1-bromo-3-methylbutane without using dispersive solvent. Several experimental factors such as type and volume of extraction solvents, the toxicity of extraction solvents, recovery percentage on vegetable samples and the comparative analysis with conventional DLLME were carried out and studied. Both DLLME were successfully extracted 12 types of PAHs. In modified DLLME, the recoveries of the analytes obtained were in a range of 72.72- 88.07 % with relative standard deviations varied from 0.1-7.5 % which is comparable to the conventional DLLME. Usage of µL of low toxic extraction solvent without dispersive solvent leads to low cost consumption, environmental friendly which is fulfill the current requirement, green chemistry based analytical method.
Appears in Collections:COGS Scholarly Publication

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