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Title: Economic dispatch of generators with valve-point loading effect using immune evolutionary programming
Authors: Mohammad, S.H. 
Mansor, M.H. 
Musirin, I. 
Abdullah, M.N. 
Shaaya, S.A. 
Rahmat, N.A. 
Rahman, M.S.A. 
Razali, N.S. 
Issue Date: 2018
Abstract: Economic dispatch is conducted by electric utilities in order to determine the best generation level at the most feasible operating cost. In order to guarantee satisfying energy delivery to the consumer, a precise calculation of generation level is required. In order to achieve accurate and practical solution, several considerations such as prohibited operating zones, valve-point loading effect and ramp-rate limit need to be taken into account. However, these considerations cause the optimization to become complex and difficult to solve. This research focuses on the valve-point effect that causes ripple in the fuel-cost curve. This paper also proposes a hybrid technique named as Immune Evolutionary Programming (IEP) in solving economic load dispatch problem with valve-point loading effect. Comparative studies involving IEP, EP and AIS are conducted on IEEE l4-Bus RTS for performance assessments. Results found in this research indicate that IEP is superior to Evolutionary Programming (EP) and Artificial Immune System (AIS) techniques in terms of calculating lower operating cost and total system loss. © 2018 Author(s).
DOI: 10.1063/1.5066887
Appears in Collections:UNITEN Scholarly Publication

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