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Title: Spatial analysis of underfill flow in flip-chip encapsulation
Authors: Ng, F.C. 
Zawawi, M.H. 
Abas, M.A. 
Issue Date: Mar-2020
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate the spatial aspects of underfill flow during the flip-chip encapsulation process, for instance, meniscus evolution and contact line jump (CLJ). Furthermore, a spatial-based void formation mechanism during the underfill flow was formulated. Design/methodology/approach: The meniscus evolution of underfill fluid subtended between the bump array and the CLJ phenomenon were visualized numerically using the micro-mesh unit cell approach. Additionally, the meniscus evolution and CLJ phenomenon were modelled analytically based on the formulation of capillary physics. Meanwhile, the mechanism of void formation was explained numerically and analytically. Findings: Both the proposed analytical and current numerical findings achieved great consensus and were well-validated experimentally. The variation effects of bump pitch on the spatial aspects were analyzed and found that the meniscus arc radius and filling distance increase with the pitch, while the subtended angle of meniscus arc is invariant with the pitch size. For larger pitch, the jump occurs further away from the bump entrance and takes longer time to attain the equilibrium meniscus. This inferred that the concavity of meniscus arc was influenced by the bump pitch. On the voiding mechanism, air void was formed from the air entrapment because of the fluid-bump interaction. Smaller voids tend to merge into a bigger void through necking and, subsequently, propagate along the underfill flow. Practical implications: The microscopic spatial analysis of underfill flow would explain fundamentally how the bump design will affect the macroscopic filling time. This not only provides alternative visualization tool to analyze flow pattern in the industry but also enables the development of accurate analytical filling time model. Moreover, the void formation mechanism gave substantial insights to understand the root causes of void defects and allow possible solutions to be formulated to tackle this issue. Additionally, the microfluidics sector could also benefit from these spatial analysis insights. Originality/value: Spatial analysis on underfill flow is scarcely conducted, as the past research studies mainly emphasized on the temporal aspects. Additionally, this work presented a new mechanism on the void formation based on the fluid-bump interaction, in which the formation and propagation of micro-voids were numerically visualized for the first time. The findings from current work provided fundamental information on the flow interaction between underfill fluid and solder bump to the package designers for optimization work and process enhancement. © 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited.
Appears in Collections:UNITEN Scholarly Publication

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